top of page


Sufism way. Sect means road in the dictionary. Sufism knowledge constitutes the basis of the sects. Cults have emerged from the presentation of this information to people in different ways. All of the Sufism information comes from our Prophet. All Ashab-ı Kiram (r. Anhüm) conveyed this information to those who came after them. With the exception of Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Ali, the ranges belonging to the other Companions disappeared after a few centuries. For one thousand four hundred years, fine knowledge and ingenuity have come with the lineage of Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Ali (See. Sufism).

Sufism in the era of tranquility and the period of the Companions; The sallatlahu of the Prophet was nothing but obeying the sunnah of the Prophet. It was like that in the time of Tabiîn and Tebe-i Doğaîn. Then, when the looseness in religion and tendencies to the world begin, to stick to the sunnah-i seniyy, that is to make an effort to fulfill the orders and prohibitions, zuhd; Those with such states were called as zuhd (zuhid) and ubbad (abids). Later, when the groups of bid'ah appeared and called their guides as witnesses and abids, those of Ahl as-Sunnah were to stick to the sunnah-i seniyya in order to be distinguished from the bid'ah sects, not to bend to the world, and to clean the heart from spiritual impurities; Such people were also called sufi and sufis. First of all, it is Abu Hashim Sufi (d. 115 / m. 733), who was called Sufi. The word Sufi has been spread since the end of the second (eighth century) century.

Until this date, the feyz and talents that came from Hazrat-i Abu Bakr and Hazret-i Ali in a series flowed from the heart to the heart. The abilities and talents that came with both ranges were presented in different styles according to the skills and abilities of the people, their nature and temperaments, and different conditions. In conclusion, from the lineage of Abu Bakr, from the ninth century; From the lineage of Hadrat Ali, main sects emerged from the twelfth century. In time, among these main sects, those who distinguished themselves with their spiritual characteristics (murshid-i ammiller, authorized guides who were trained and trained in Sufism) were found. They made some changes and additions according to the conditions and the conditions of the people of their time, without opposing the basic features of the main order. From these, branches of the main sects emerged. They were also called by the name of that saintly person who gave the sect its characteristic. All of the feyz and accomplishments of the sects come from our master the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi and wa sallam. However, there is a difference in style between them. For example, there are hundreds of high schools in a country. The same common courses are read in every high school. But since their teachers are different, their upbringing is also different. However, every high school graduate is subject to common knowledge and common rights. This is the case with the sects.

The sects that started to be systematized after the fifth high altitude of the Hijri had great expressions in the life of the individual and society. They appealed to everyone, from the shepherd to the head of the state, and attracted the hearts with their words and conversations. They instilled in the spirit of doing what he did for God. They helped the individuals to get rid of their simple interests worries, to become people of high character who looked what they were and were what they seemed, far from hypocrisy and pretentious. They endeavored to make the people in the community love each other wholeheartedly, not with language, who can ask for others what they want for themselves, and to get rid of the self-righteousness and self-righteousness. The hearts, which became stiffened by the love of the world, softened with their harsh words. In this way, societies that were interlocked with religious bonds and attained unity and solidarity came into being.

Apart from these, the members of the order, who actively served in the spread of Islam, went to India and the islands of Mâla, learned the languages of the local people, mixed with them and spread Islam. Abu İshak Kâzerûnî is one of the thousands of people who served in the spread of Islam (d. 426/1034). Kâzerûnî, who worked with all his might in the spread of Islam in China, India, Iran and Anatolia, organized gases with the military units he established. That's why he was called Şeyh-i Gâzî. It was after twenty four thousand Jewish people and firefighters to become Muslims. In addition, they carried out activities to prepare the ground for the conquest before the armies went on the gas. When they went with the army, they raised the morale and spirituality of the soldier with their speeches. Again, after the conquest, the non-Muslims of that town worked to warm the people to Islam.

For this reason, the caliphs and sultans in Islam have always valued scholars and saints in their states. As a matter of fact, Çağrı and Tuğrul Beys, who are the founders of the Great Seljuk State, used to take the advice and prayers of Abu Sa'îd Ebü'l-Hayr, who lived at that time. Once, Abu Sa'id (r. Against) wrote to Çağrı Bey: “Allahu ta'ala will protect Cagri Bey, the victorious pâdishah, and not leave it to his soul and creatures. May he always do what he is pleased with, what he likes. You protect yourself from the things that end up regret. "

Fraternities, Turkey has continued the same services in the establishment of the Seljuk Empire and subsequent periods. The Sufism elders, who were the spiritual educators of the society, were accepted by the Seljuk sultans. Therefore, from Necmeddîn-i Bağdadî (d. 607 / m. 1210), Sultan İzzeddîn Selçukî (d. 617/1220); Şihâbüddîn Sühreverdî and Behâeddîn Veled received much respect from the First Alâüddîn Keykubâd.

Towards the middle of the thirteenth century in Konya Evhadüddîn Kirmânî, Muhyiddîn-i Arabî, Sadreddîn Konevî, Celâleddîn-i Rûmî, Mueyyedüddîn el-Cündî, Sa'deddîn Fergânî, Tokat; Fahreddîn bin İbrahim Irakî (d. 689/1289), Necmeddîn Dâye (d. 654/1256) in Kayseri and Sivas are among the architects of unity and solidarity in Anatolia.

In the last period of the Seljuks, when the state authority was lost with the Mongol invasion and the community life was mixed, the convictions of the people of the sect and Sufism; It has been a source of great consolation and tranquility to people who have lost their peace. Dervish lodges and lodges were like nursing homes. Besides, they had great benefits in maintaining the state authority. On the other hand, some dervishes were also struggling to join the Mongols and to warm them to Islam, or at least to minimize their cruelty.

Subsequently, the people of tarikat and Sufism, who had a great role in the establishment of the Ottoman Empire, served all over the country during their ascension period. However, in recent times, these sects have been under the control of incompetent people. Such people caused this institution to be misunderstood.

For this reason, while criticizing the sect groups that are detached from their essence and occupied by the bidats today, it should not be thought as if there was a deficiency in their founders and their first establishment, and should not be disparaged and ridiculed without doing research.

Encyclopedia of Islamic History, Sect Betting

bottom of page